Peking University is the birthplace of Chinese scientific Psychology, and its undergraduate education in the discipline began in 1900. With the support of Cai Yuanpei, the former chancellor of Peking University, the first Psychological laboratory in China was established in 1927. This laboratory is the predecessor of the School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences.

In recent years, the Psychological research and teaching in the school has been closely linked with national strategies and social needs in China. The school has trained a large number of talented individuals in basic and applied Psychology, and makes a great contribution to the development of Chinese Psychological science. The school is the only Chinese Psychological institute that ranks among the top 1 percent of the world in Psychological science.